New Research

Technical Assistance

  • NEW: Washington Principles on Copyright Balance in Trade Agreements. Joint statement endorsed by 79 experts and civil society groups. November 15, 2017: English | French

Letters and Submissions, re: Changes to Copyright Law

Copyright User Rights Policy Workshops

Model Flexible Use Clause and Supporting Documents

Further Resources/Analysis

Join or Contact the Network

The Global Expert Network on Copyright User Rights was formed in 2011 by a group of leading copyright academics from around the world. The objective of the Network was originally framed in the Washington Declaration on Intellectual Property and the Public Interest, which called for “discussion of employing ‘open-ended’ limitations in national copyright legislation, in addition to specific exceptions.”

The work of the Network focuses on the publication of research and provision of technical assistance to explain how adopting more open, flexible and general user rights – both by adopting fair use-like open, flexible, general provisions, and by increasing the openness and flexibility of specific (non-general) exceptions – can promote social and economic interests.

Recent News

U.S., Canadian and Mexican Law Professors, Academics and Policy Experts: NAFTA Must Include Fair Use, Safe Harbors

[PIJIP] Nov 7: Today, over seventy international copyright law experts called for NAFTA and other trade negotiators to support a set of balanced copyright principles. The experts urge trade negotiators to support policies like fair use, safe harbor provisions, and other exceptions and limitations that permit and encourage access to knowledge, flourishing creativity, and innovation. Signatories include preeminent intellectual property professors and experts from law schools, think tanks, and public interest organizations in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico, as well as Argentina, Australia, China, Ireland, and Switzerland. More.

PIJIP Releases New Research on the Impact of Copyright Balance at the 35th WIPO Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights

[Mike Palmedo] Nov 14: Today, PIJIP released new research on the impact of copyright balance. The release was announced at the World Intellectual Property Organization Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights. The research finds that balanced copyright policies in other countries have had positive effects on net income, total sales, and value-added by foreign affiliates of U.S. firms. More generally, it finds that increases in PIJIP’s “openness score” are associated with higher revenues in the information sector, without harming traditional copyright-intensive industries. More.

The User Rights Database: Measuring the Impact of Copyright Balance

[Sean Flynn and MikePalmedo] Nov 7: One reason for the lack of empirical research on the impact of more open and flexible user rights has been the absence of a tool to measure changes in this variable of the law. To promote additional and enhanced research into the impact of user rights, we created the User Rights Database. The User Rights Database is an open access repository of coded data showing how and when copyright user rights have changed over time in a representative sample of different countries. More.

Copyright Scholarship by Global Expert Network Members

Sean Flynn and Michael Palmedo. The User Rights Database: Measuring the Impact of Copyright Balance. PIJIP Working Paper 2017-03. Link.

Christophe Geiger & Elena Izyumenko, Copyright on the Human Rights Trial: Redefining the Boundaries of Exclusivity Through Freedom of Expression, 45(3) Int’l. Rev. Intell. Prop. Compet. L. (2017), Link.

Christophe Geiger et al., Opinion of the CEIPI on the European Commission’s Proposal to Reform Copyright Limitations and Exceptions in the European Union (Center for International Intellectual Property Studies Research Paper No. 9, 2017), Link.

Christophe Geiger, Copyright as an Access Right, Securing Cultural Participation Through the Protection of Creators’ Interests (Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition Research Paper No. 15, 2017), Link.

Christophe Geiger, Freedom of Artistic Creativity and Copyright Law: A Compatible Combination?, 8 UC Irvine L. Rev. 3 (2017), Link.

Caroline Ncube et al., The Intellectual Property Treaty Landscape in Africa, 1885 to 2015 (2017), Link.

Australian National University Press, What if we could Reimagine Copyright? (Rebecca Giblin & Kimberlee Weatherall eds., 2017), Link.

Peter K. Yu, Customizing Fair Use Transplants (Texas A&M University School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 78, 2017), Link.

Peter K. Yu, When the Chinese Intellectual Property System Hits 35 (Texas A&M University School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 70, 2017), Link.

Peter K. Yu, Five Decades of Intellectual Property and Global Development (Texas A&M University School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 10, 2017), Link.

Teresa Nobre, Copyright and Education in Europe: 15 Everyday Cases in 15 Countries (2017), Link. 

Christophe Geiger et al., The Introduction of a Neighbouring Right for Press Publisher at EU Level: The Unneeded (and Unwanted) Reform, 39(4) Eur. Intellect. Prop. Rev. 202 (2017), Link.

Sean Flynn & Michael Palmedo, The User Rights Database: Measuring the Impact of Copyright Balance (PIJIP Working Paper No. 3, 2017), Link.

Christophe Geiger & Elena Izyumenko, The Role of Human Rights in Copyright Enforcement Online: Elaborating a Legal Framework for Website Blocking: 32(1) Am. U. Int’l L. Rev. 43 (2016), Link.

Robert Burrell et al., Submission in Response to the Australian Productivity Commission’s Inquiry into IP Arrangements Draft Report (UNSW Law Research Paper No. 51, 2016), Link.

Michael Birnhack et al., Joint Special 301 Comment on Identification of Countries Under Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974 (2016), Link.

Rebecca Giblin, Is It Copyright’s Role to Fill Houses with Books? (Monash University Faculty of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 7, 2016), Link.

Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan, The Protection of Intellectual Property in International Law – An Introduction, Oxford University Press (2016), Link. 

Kimberlee Weatherall et al., Submission in Response to the Australian Productivity Commission’s Inquiry into IP Arrangements Draft Report (UNSW Law Research Paper No. 51, 2016), Link.

Caroline Ncube, Fair Is as Fair Does: Contractual Normative Regulation of Copyright User Contracts in South Africa (2015), Link. 

Niva Elkin, Copyright in the Digital Ecosystem: A User-Rights Approach (2015), Link. 

Niva Elkin & Orit Frischman Afori, Taking Users’ Rights to the Next Level: A Pragmatist Approach to Fair Use, Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. (2015), Link. 

Rebecca Giblin & Kimberlee Weatherall, At the Intersection of Public Service and the Market: Libraries and the Future of Lending, 26 AIPJ 4-26 (2015), Link. 

Lucie Guibault et al., Is Europe Falling Behind in Data Mining? Copyright’s Impact on Data Mining in Academic Research (2015), Link. 

Kimberlee Weatherall, The Australia-US Free Trade Agreement’s Impact on Australia’s Copyright Trade Policy, 69 AJIA 538-558 (2015), Link.

Sean Flynn. Copyright Legal and Practical Reform for the South African Film Industry. The African Journal of Information and Communication (AJIC), Issue 16, 2015 . Link.

Christophe Geiger, Daniel J. Gervais and Martin Senftleben. The Three-Step-Test Revisited: How to Use the Test’s Flexibility in National Copyright Law. 29 American University International Law Review 3 (2014). Link.

Christophe Geiger, Challenges for the Enforcement of Copyright in the Online World: Time for a New Approach (Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition Research Paper No. 1 2014), Link. 

Peter Jaszi et al., Report on Copyright, Permissions, and Fair Use among Visual Artists and the Academic and Museum Visual Arts Communities (2014), Link. 

Ian Hargreaves et al., Report from the Expert Group on Standardisation in the Area of Innovation and Technological Development, Notably in the Field of Text and Data Mining, European Commission (2014), Link.   (Lucie Guibault and Christina Handke were among the Expert Group to draft the report)

Christophe Geiger et al., The Three-Step Test Revisited: How to Use the Test’s Flexibility in National Copyright Law (PIJIP Research Paper No. 12, 2013), Link.

Gwen Hinze et al., Solving the Orphan Works Problem for the United States, 37 Colum. J.L. & Arts (2013), Link.

Gwen Hinze et al., The Fair Use Doctrine in the United States – A Response to the Kernochan Report (2013), Link.

Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan, Overlaps and Conflict Norms in Human Rights Law: Approaches of European Courts to Address Intersections with Intellectual Property Rights (Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property & Competition Law Research Paper No. 18, 2013), Link.

Meera Nair. Canada and Israel – Cultivating Fairness of Use. PIJIP Research paper 2012-04. (2012).

Caroline B. Ncube, ACTA & Access to Learning Materiols In Morocco: An Examination of How ACTA Impacts the Creation of a Moroccan Orphan Works Regime (PIJIP Research Paper No. 1, 2012), Link. 

Hong Xue, One Step Ahead Two Steps Back: Reverse Engineering 2nd Draft for 3rd Revision of the Chinese Copyright Law (PIJIP Research Paper No. 9, 2012),  Link.

Alberto Cerda Silva, Beyond the Unrealistic Solution for Development Provided by the Appendix of the Berne Convention on Copyright (PIJIP Research Paper No. 8, 2012), Link.

Michael W. Carroll, Why Full Open Access Matters (PIJIP Research Paper No. 45, 2011), Link.

Peter Jaszi & Sean Flynn, Untold Stories in South Africa: Creative Consequences of the Rights-Clearing Culture for Documentary Filmmakers (PIJIP Research Paper No. 20, 2009), Link.


Join or Contact the Global Expert Netork

The Users’s Rights Network will continue to provide guidance and information to advocates and government officials in countries undergoing copyright reform. If you are a copyright expert or advocate interested in being part of the network, please fill out this very short form.

If you are an advocate or government official interested in receiving technical assistance form the network, email your inquiries to

Global Expert Network Founding Members

Ahmed Abdel Latif
Lila Bailey
Denis Barbosa
Lionel Bentley
Michael Birnhack
Carolyn    Botero
Ellen Broad
Robert Burrell
Michael Carroll
Alberto Cerda
Ronan Deazley
Niva Elkin
Christophe Geiger
Michael Geist
Daniel Gervais
Rebecca Giblin
Lucie Guibault
Gwen Hinze
Bernt Hugenholtz
Meredith Jacob
Peter Jaszi
Ariel Katz
Dick Kawooya
Howard Knopf
Kaya Koeklue
Oliver Metzger
Pedro Mizukami
Caroline Ncube
Sylvie Nerisson
Pedro Paranagua
Pranesh Prakash
Alan Rocha de Souza
Henning Ruse-Khan
Matt Sag
Pam Samuelson
Martin Senftleben
Jennifer Urban
Steph Von Gompel
Fred Von Lohmann
Kimberlee Weatherall
Hong Xue
Peter Yu