Global Network on Copyright User Rights


Letters and Submissions, re: Changes to Copyright Law

Copyright User Rights Policy Workshops

Publications by Network Experts

Model Flexible Use Clause and Supporting Documents

Further Resources/Analysis

Join or Contact the Network

The Global Network on Copyright User Rights is a group of copyright experts from around the world assembled to generate policy options and expert guidance on the protection of users’ rights through flexible limitations and exceptions in national copyright laws.

The objective of the Network was originally framed in the Washington Declaration on Intellectual Property and the Public Interest which called for “discussion of employing ‘open-ended’ limitations in national copyright legislation, in addition to specific exceptions.”

The Primary Documents were drafted through a year-long consultative process with the Network’s founding members (below). The Model Flexible Copyright Exception is designed to be adaptable in general form to most copyright laws – including those in common and civil law systems. The core of the proposal is a general balancing test that could be added as a general clause to any existing list of limitations and exceptions. The second part of the model provides a more specific set of balancing factors that could be adopted in addition to the general clause to give guidance in its interpretation and implementation.

Appendix I identifies a long list of Presumptively Lawful Uses created through a survey of limitations and exceptions included in many copyright laws around the world. Appendix II provides examples of flexible exceptions from existing copyright laws or proposals from around the world. Appendix III provides some short responses to frequently asked questions about flexible copyright exceptions.

The network has also engaged in subsequent research, analysis and technical assistance — some of the products of which are posted in the Additional Resources section below the Primary Documents.



The Users’s Rights Network will continue to provide guidance and information to advocates and government officials in countries undergoing copyright reform.

JOIN: If you are a copyright expert or advocate interested in being part of the network, please fill out this very short form.

CONTACT: If you are an advocate or government official interested in receiving technical assistance form the network, email your inquiries to


  • Ahmed Abdel Latif
  • Lila Bailey
  • Denis Barbosa
  • Lionel Bentley
  • Michael Birnhack
  • Carolyn    Botero
  • Ellen Broad
  • Robert Burrell
  • Michael Carroll
  • Alberto Cerda
  • Ronan Deazley
  • Niva Elkin
  • SeanFlynn
  • Christophe Geiger
  • Michael Geist
  • Daniel Gervais
  • Rebecca Giblin
  • Lucie Guibault
  • Gwen Hinze
  • Bernt Hugenholtz
  • Meredith Jacob
  • Peter Jaszi
  • Ariel Katz
  • Dick Kawooya
  • Howard Knopf
  • Kaya Koeklue
  • Oliver Metzger
  • Pedro Mizukami
  • Caroline Ncube
  • Sylvie Nerisson
  • Pedro Paranagua
  • Pranesh Prakash
  • Alan Rocha de Souza
  • Henning Ruse-Khan
  • Matt Sag
  • Pam Samuelson
  • Martin Senftleben
  • Jennifer Urban
  • Steph Von Gompel
  • Fred Von Lohmann
  • Kimberlee Weatherall
  • Hong Xue
  • Peter Yu