Washington Declaration on Intellectual Property and the Public Interest


The Global Congress on Intellectual Property and the Public Interest, August 25-27, 2011, convened over 180 experts from 32 countries and six continents to help re-articulate the public interest dimension in intellectual property law and policy. This document records the conclusions from the Congress and is now open for endorsements and comments.

Click here to sign the declaration.

Click here for a downloadable PDF of the Declaration


Time is of the essence. The last 25 years have seen an unprecedented expansion of the concentrated legal authority exercised by intellectual property rights holders. This expansion has been driven by governments in the developed world and by international organizations that have adopted the maximization of intellectual property control as a fundamental policy tenet. Increasingly, this vision has been exported to the rest of the world.

Over the same period, broad coalitions of civil society groups and developing country governments have emerged to promote more balanced approaches to intellectual property protection. These coalitions have supported new initiatives to promote innovation and creativity, taking advantage of the opportunities offered by new technologies. So far, however, neither the substantial risks of intellectual property maximalism, nor the benefits of more open approaches, are adequately understood by most policy makers or citizens. This must change if the notion of a public interest distinct from the dominant private interest is to be maintained.

The next decade is likely to be determinative. A quarter century of adverse changes in the international intellectual property system are on the cusp of becoming effectively irreversible, at least in the lives of present generations. Intellectual property can promote innovation, creativity and cultural development. But an old proverb teaches that “it is possible to have too much of a good thing,” and that adage certainly applies here. The burden falls on public interest advocates to make a coordinated, evidence-based case for a critical reexamination of intellectual property maximalism at every level of government, and in every appropriate institutional setting, as well as to pursue alternatives that may blunt the force of intellectual property expansionism.

We begin our statement of the Congress’s conclusions with two overarching points:

  • International intellectual property policy affects a broad range of interests within society, not just those of rights holders. Thus, intellectual property policy making should be conducted through mechanisms of transparency and openness that encourage broad public participation. New rules should be made within the existing forums responsible for intellectual property policy, where both developed and developing countries have full representation, and where the texts of and forums for considering proposals are open. All new international intellectual property standards must be subject to democratic checks and balances, including domestic legislative approval and opportunities for judicial review.
  • Markets alone cannot be relied upon to achieve a just allocation of information goods — that is, one that promotes the full range of human values at stake in intellectual property systems. This is clear, for example, from recent experiences in the areas of public health and education, where intellectual property has complicated progress toward meeting these basic public needs.

Informed by these two broad points, the Congress adopted a series of specific recommendations for action, which are expressed below.

Putting Intellectual Property in Its Place

Intellectual property systems are designed to serve human values and must be tailored to this end. Expansion of intellectual property rights and remedies may conflict with legal doctrines that express and safeguard these values, including human rights, consumer protection, competition and privacy laws. These laws provide a framework within which intellectual property rights must be drafted, interpreted and enforced. In particular, we should act to:

  • Promote and protect rights to freedom of expression, and to seek, receive and impart information, in the face of expansions in copyright and trademark scope and enforcement, including in the digital environment.
  • Respect the rights to due process and a fair trial in the face of rapidly escalating intellectual property enforcement measures. We must insist on the provision of adequate evidentiary thresholds, fair hearings, impartial adjudicators, rights to submit evidence and confront accusers, proportionality in penalties, and strict scrutiny of public enforcement responsibilities delegated to private actors.
  • Use human rights, including civil and political and social and economic rights, to scrutinize expansions of intellectual property rights that threaten access to essential knowledge goods and services.
  • Use all available regulatory frameworks for controlling abuses of intellectual property rights, including mechanisms that protect consumers, control excessive pricing, prevent anti-competitive conduct, regulate licensing and contractual terms and open access to essential facilities.
  • Protect traditional knowledge and cultural expressions against misappropriation through intellectual property rights.

Valuing Openness and the Public Domain

Copyrights and patents are time-limited rights because the public interest requires that creative and innovative works ultimately become free for all to use as part of the public domain. The public domain serves as a foundation of cultural heritage and scientific knowledge from which future creators and inventors necessarily draw. A group of related civil society movements has emerged to promote the benefits of the public domain or openness, including through open licensing, open access, open educational resources, open data, open standards, open government, and related open information policies. To further these efforts, and those like them, we should:

  • Advocate for a permanent moratorium on further extensions of copyright, related rights and patent terms.
  • Call for government procurement and education policies to place Free/Libre/Open Source Software on an equal competitive footing with proprietary software.
  • Support private initiatives to increase access through licenses or terms of use that enable widespread public use or through alternative publication and distribution models.
  • Support the values of interoperability and long-term preservation by requiring use of open standards for information produced by or for public entities.
  • Support the use of open educational resources through government procurement policies for textbooks and other educational materials, and through incentives to generate open resources at all levels of education.
  • Insist on policies that grant the public free and unrestricted access to all government funded endeavors, such as output of publicly funded research, government-collected data, cultural works supported by public funds and publicly funded collections and archives.

Strengthening Limitations and Exceptions

Limitations and exceptions are positive enabling doctrines that function to ensure that intellectual property law fulfills its ultimate purpose of promoting essential aspects of the public interest. By limiting the private right, limitations and exceptions enable the public to engage in a wide range of socially beneficial uses of information otherwise covered by intellectual property rights — which in turn contribute directly to new innovation and economic development. Limitations and exceptions are woven into the fabric of intellectual property law not only as specific exceptional doctrines (“fair use” or “fair dealing,” “specific exemptions,” etc.), but also as structural restrictions on the scope of rights, such as provisions for compulsory licensing of patents for needed medicines. Despite their importance in countering expansive trends in intellectual property, limitations and exceptions are under threat, especially from efforts to recast international law as a constraint on the exercise of flexibilities in domestic legislation. The signatories strongly support efforts to defend and expand as appropriate the operation of limitations and exceptions in the years to come. Specifically, we should work to:

  • Continue efforts to assure that international law is interpreted in ways that give States the greatest possible flexibility in adopting limitations and exceptions that are appropriate to their cultural and economic circumstances.
  • Support the development of binding international agreements providing for mandatory minimum limitations and exceptions.
  • Promote discussion of employing “open-ended” limitations in national copyright legislation, in addition to specific exceptions.
  • Develop legal regimes that address directly the needs of persons with specific medical conditions and disabilities, including those with print disabilities.
  • Promote limitations and exceptions that enable libraries, museums, archives and other “institutions of memory” to fulfill their public interest missions, while assuring that cultural and educational institutions take advantage of existing flexibilities.
  • Enable teaching and learning at all levels, including through measures that assure fair access to and use of educational materials from early literacy acquisition in the family setting through institutions of primary, secondary and higher education.
  • Defend the principle of domestic “exhaustion” (or “first sale”) in national law, and the freedom of countries to choose to implement international or regional exhaustion to facilitate parallel importation.
  • Facilitate public use of “orphan” and out-of-print works, and other difficult-to-access categories of content, and assure the freedom of researchers to engage in large-scale text-mining (or “non-consumptive”) research.
  • Explore the benefits of maintaining or reintroducing formalities requirements (such as notice and registration) for individuals and entities claiming the benefit of copyrights.
  • Advocate for appropriate limits on the use of unfair contracts or technological protection measures that override limitations and exceptions.

Setting Public Interest Priorities for Patent Reform

In a period of rapid technological change, the patent system has serious problems. In some industries, very low patenting standards and a proliferation of patents of questionable validity have fueled a culture of competition by intimidation and litigation, rather than innovation. Even when patentability requirements are applied strictly, the international patent system has become too rigid and too unitary to accommodate the diverse needs of a complex world. A more effective and manageable system for fostering technological and scientific innovation should be built around a more diverse structure of incentives for innovation. Specifically, we should work to:

  • Dedicate public resources to non-patent-based incentive models, such as prizes for innovation, especially in areas where patent incentives have proved weak, such as for research on neglected diseases and the provision of cost-effective access to medicines in developing countries.
  • Implement reforms that limit the granting or maintenance of patent rights where they are not justified by net benefits to the public, including through the introduction or preservation of opportunities for challenges to pending and issued patents; stronger scrutiny of patentable subject matter, including ending patents based on discovery rather than invention (including patents on human DNA sequences and disease associations); and more rigorous determination of inventiveness
  • Ensure that inventions that result from publicly funded research are available for public use.
  • Introduce meaningful exemptions for research and for educational uses into national laws.
  • Promote transparency in the documentation of patent ownership and licensing, particularly with respect to key technologies like medicines.

Supporting Cultural Creativity

Maximizing opportunities for creativity and maximizing access to creative works are the two sides of the public interest in cultural life. It is increasingly clear, however, that the existing intellectual property system does poorly on both fronts, especially in regard to digital technologies. As business models based on sales of recorded media come under pressure from new technologies, a broader mix of models for rewarding and empowering authors and artists may be needed. More generally, we should encourage broad experimentation in the marketplace and—at a minimum—policy neutrality with regard to old and new business models. Such innovation can help to end today’s fruitless disputes over practices like non-commercial file-sharing, and to prevent new ones from emerging. In this context, we should support initiatives to:

  • Encourage experimentation with, and research on, systems of indirect rewards, such as levies on media, equipment, or usage.
  • Require greater transparency, accountability, internal democracy and public oversight on the part of collective rights management organizations.
  • Recognize the continued role of public funding for types of production deemed socially valuable and systematically under-provisioned by the market, such as small-market audiovisual, musical and artistic culture.
  • Strengthen the contractual position of authors and artists vis-à-vis producers through such means as providing opportunities to re-negotiate terms and reclaim rights in case of non-use or after a defined period of time, and requiring greater transparency in contracts.
  • Build the capacity of authors and artists to license their works directly to the public.
  • Encourage the establishment of publicly accessible systems of rights management information which ensure that authors and artists can be identified.

Checking Enforcement Excesses

The maximalist intellectual property agenda includes a push at all levels for stronger enforcement — in courts, on the street, at borders, and now on the Internet. Government and private IP enforcement are commandeering greater social resources in order to impose stricter penalties than ever before, with fewer safeguards and less procedural fairness.  This trend in enforcement brings IP into ever-sharper conflict with other rights and public policy objectives, including protecting privacy and freedom of expression, providing due process, and promoting health and education.  It creates new risks of wrongful searches and seizures. And it threatens the Internet’s original—and enormously valuable—decentralized architecture, as Internet service providers are increasingly being drafted to act as enforcement agents. Recognizing the importance of reasonable enforcement of properly-bounded intellectual property rights, we should work to:

  • Ensure that legal penalties, processes, and remedies are reasonable and proportional to the acts of infringement they target, and do not include restrictions on access to essential goods and services, including access to the Internet or to needed medicines and learning materials.
  • Promote proportional approaches to enforcement that avoid excessively punitive approaches to enforcement, such as disproportionate statutory damages; undue expansion of criminal and third party liability; and dramatic increases in authority to enjoin, seize and destroy goods without adequate procedural safeguards.
  • Ensure that countries retain the rights to implement flexibilities to enforcement measures and to make independent decisions about the prioritization of law enforcement resources to promote public interests.
  • Limit the duties, rights, or abilities of Internet service providers to monitor or control the communications of their users based on the content of these communications.
  • Ensure that agreements and protocols between individuals, intermediaries, rights holders, technology providers, and governments relating to enforcement on the Internet are transparent, fair and clear.
  • Ensure that public authorities retain and exercise rigorous oversight of critical enforcement functions, including policing, criminal enforcement and ultimate legal judgments.

Implementing Development Agendas

Development is now widely recognized as a central concern in global intellectual property debates. History and experience teaches that every increase in intellectual property protection, especially in developing countries, does not necessarily lead to increases in investment, innovation or well-being. However imperfectly, the 1994 Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) preserved some policy space for countries to tailor intellectual property protection to their domestic policy priorities, as affirmed in the 2001 Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health. In 2007, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Development Agenda further highlighted the need to fully integrate the development dimension into intellectual property policy and norm-setting. Beyond this, there is a need for development agendas to infuse all levels of international and national intellectual property policy making. We therefore should:

  • Insist that current proposals for global copyright and patent reform fully integrate development concerns and assess implications on developing countries.
  • Ensure that the WIPO Development Agenda recommendations are fully implemented in all areas of the organization’s functioning in a manner that results in tangible changes in the organization’s institutional culture.
  • Insist on full transparency and accountability from bilateral, regional and multilateral providers of intellectual property technical assistance.
  • Encourage the efforts of developing countries to make greater use of flexibilities, limitations and exceptions to intellectual property to advance public policy objectives in areas such as health, education, agriculture, food, and technology transfer.
  • Invite countries that are considering the adoption of intellectual property strategies to ensure that such strategies are the result of an inclusive process of consultation and are fully consistent with national priorities and development objectives.
  • Support extension of the TRIPS transition-period waivers for Least Developed Countries.
  • Call upon developed countries to take more effective measures to implement their multilateral commitments in relation to technology transfer, including through monitoring mechanisms and addressing possible barriers created by intellectual property rights.
  • Encourage South-South cooperation in the areas of intellectual property and innovation so that countries with similar levels of development can benefit from one another’s experiences.
  • Call for an independent assessment of the development effects of intellectual property commitments in bilateral, regional and plurilateral agreements.
  • Promote a thorough review of TRIPS for possible amendments to ensure the effective operationalization of its objectives and principles.

Requiring Evidence-based Policy Making

Most would agree that research used in policy making should meet basic standards of transparency. Yet the intellectual property policy debates of the past two decades have not done so. Industry-funded research dominates the intellectual property policy conversation, yet virtually none of the major industry-sponsored studies document their methods, assumptions, or underlying data in any detail. The institutions responsible for intellectual property policy making have failed to exert enough pressure for either transparency or quality—and in many cases have relied on discredited statistics in their own statements. The weakness of evidence in this area is now widely recognized and calls into question the legitimacy of much of the expansionist intellectual property policy of the past quarter century. Developing countries are doubly disadvantaged in this context, due to wider gaps in domestic research on intellectual property. In this context, we should act to ensure that:

  • Policy making is based on research rather than faith or ideology.
  • Research used in policy making is fully transparent, with publicly documented methods, assumptions, funding sources, and underlying data.
  • Governments and international organizations invest in data collection to enable better estimates of the costs and benefits of intellectual property rules, including the public and private costs of enforcement.
  • Efforts to quantify the economic value of intellectual property should reflect the economic value attributable to activities enabled by limitations and exceptions to intellectual property rights, openness policies and practices, and the public domain.

The Global Congress was organized by American University Washington College of Law’s Program on Information Justice and Intellectual Property, Fundação Getulio Vargas’s Center for Technology and Society (Brazil), the American Assembly at Columbia University and the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (Geneva). The Congress was sponsored by the International Development Research Centre, Google Inc., Open Society Foundation, the Institute for Global and International Studies at George Washington University, and Seattle University School of Law. Additional information on the Congress including online libraries of background materials that reflect on the themes articulated in this Declaration, is available at http://infojustice.org/public-events/global-congress

Sign the Washington Declaration

This declaration is now open to endorsement and comment, including by those who were not part of this meeting of the Congress. The Declaration will remain open for endorsement and comment throughout the next year, until the next Congress convenes in Rio de Janeiro in August 2012.

[emailpetition id=”1″]

[signaturelist id=”1″]
FacebookTwitterRedditStumbleUponWordPressTumblrBlogger PostEmailPrintFriendly

  180 Responses to “Washington Declaration on Intellectual Property and the Public Interest”

  1. We need to protect the Universal Right to Access Knowledge, Culture and Content from the limitations imposed by today’s restrictive intellectual property system and at the same time protect the rights and roles of authors, creators and innovators, which are not well served either by the existing system.

  2. Hello, of course this paragraph is in fact fastidious and
    I have learned lot of things from it concerning blogging.

  3. Hi there I am so glad I found your weblog, I really found you by error, while
    I was researching on Askjeeve for something else, Regardless I am here now and would just
    like to say kudos for a tremendous post and a all round entertaining blog
    (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time
    to read through it all at the minute but I have saved it and
    also included your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read much more, Please do keep up the excellent work.

    Also visit my webpage: Pura Vida Bracelets Coupon
    Code (http://www.slideshare.net)

  4. Nice post. I learn something totally new and challenging on sites
    I stumbleupon every day. It will always be interesting to read
    through articles from other authors and practice a
    little something from their websites.

    Here is my web-site; Logo Nerds Coupon Code (Julius)

  5. http://www.chhclub.com/
    Very nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wished
    to say that I’ve really enjoyed browsing your blog posts. After all I’ll be subscribing to your rss
    feed and I hope you write again soon!

  6. Hello! I could have sworn I’ve been to this blog before but after checking through some of the post I realized it’s new
    to me. Nonetheless, I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll be bookmarking and checking back frequently!

  7. http://www.amirart.com/informat.html
    Wow that was strange. I just wrote an incredibly long comment but after
    I clicked submit my comment didn’t appear. Grrrr… well I’m not
    writing all that over again. Regardless, just wanted to say fantastic blog!

  8. My partner and I absolutely love your blog and find a lot of your post’s to be what precisely I’m looking for.
    Do you offer guest writers to write content in your case?

    I wouldn’t mind producing a post or elaborating on a lot of the subjects you write in relation to here. Again, awesome web log!

  9. When I initially commented I clicked the “Notify me when new comments are added”
    checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get several e-mails with the same comment.
    Is there any way you can remove me from
    that service? Many thanks!

    Take a look at my web site :: Alexon Coupon Code (Virginia)

  10. Not listed as a separate part is a gasket in the bottom of each blade.
    After the feasts, the plates would have absorbed the gravy or sauces and remnants of the
    feast would be embedded into the soft dough. Waldorf salad is one such salad that is an amalgamation of celery, apples, walnuts,
    and mayonnaise.

  11. Thanks for the marvelous posting! I genuinely enjoyed reading
    it, you might be a great author. I will be sure to bookmark youir blog and definitely will come back in thhe
    future. I want to encourage yourself to continue your great
    writing, have a nice evening!

    Feel free to visit my webpage :: Lomita Realtor

  12. I’m ɑmazed, I must say. Seldom do I encounter a
    blg that’s both equally educative and еngaging, and without a doubt, you have
    hit the nail on the head. The prоblеm is something that not enough people
    are sρeaking intelligently about. I’m veгy happy I stumbled across this during my search for something cօncerning thiѕ.

    Look into mу web page … porn star bieyanka moore

  13. Greetings I am so thrilled I found your blog page, I really found
    you by error, while I was browsing on Bing for something else, Regardless I am here now and would just like to say thanks a lot for a fantastic post and
    a all round entertaining blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t
    have time to read it all at the moment but I have saved
    it and also added your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read much more,
    Please do keep up the great job.

  14. Greetings! I’ve been reading your weblkg for a long time now and finally got thhe bravery to goo ahead and give you a shout out from
    Dallas Texas! Just wanted to say keep up the great job!

  15. นี้เป็น หัวข้อ ที่
    ใกล้ หัวใจของฉัน …
    ขอบคุณ ! ว่า ที่ รายละเอียด ที่ติดต่อของคุณ แม้ว่า

    Stop by my site: &3652;&3605;รคามวิทยาสรรค์

  16. Thanks on your marvelous posting! I genuinely enjoyed reading it, you can be a great author.
    I will make sure to bookmark your blog and will often come back in the foreseeable future.
    I want to encourage yourself to continue your great writing, have
    a nice weekend!

  17. Lærdommen Allen Iverson lære oss er virkelig dypt.

    Youngers som ønsker å være en utmerket fotballspiller, hva du trenger å
    gjøre er å ikke bare øke dine ferdigheter, males også imporve din fysiske slik at
    beskytte dere fra skade. Alle spillere ønsker å forlate maske i Nike sko, guys
    få av dem å oppnå denne æren, hvis du virkelig drømt om det,
    finne et idol å gjøre opp din drøm er katalysatoren til suksess ..

    Denise Richards er «oppriktig glad for hennes ex mann Charlie Sheen, som nylig ble forlovet
    med Brooke Mueller. Faktisk, jeg sendte dem
    blomster for å gratulere dem begge, Richards fortalte Folks Magazine.
    Virkelig, Denise? Aww, det gjorde du ikke. Jeg har tilbrakt tid sammen med henne,
    og mine jenter virkelig liker henne, Richards lagt.

    Det er alt som betyr noe for meg. Richards og Sheen brøt opp i 2005 og har to døtre.
    Hun sa det.
    Begge lenge formet halskjeder og kort halskjeder ser
    flott med V hals topper. Ta inn på konto dybden av deg
    skjorta, også. Scoop necklines ser greatest med kortere
    halskjeder. Hvis jeg var en rakett, ville jeg være i
    her hun rystet hele hennes kropp som en vibrerende Titan scenen. Nå er jeg bare kommer til å gå
    gjøre noen endringer i åpnings monolog, sa hun til generell panikk
    munterhet av dem som sto rundt henne. Bare noen få endringer.Veldig rørende historie.
    Jeg var 21 år, bor i New Mexico kommer til college. Jeg husker using min sykkel til
    klassen den dagen på tomme, uhyggelige rolige gater.
    Enda en annen anvendelse er for pumping av vann og olje fra undergrunnen. Gitt den måten MYT pumpe ideelt håndterer de tre
    viktigste elementene i volum, movement og trykk, det trekker opp
    som et tau, sa Morgado. Ironisk nok var det dette programmet som Morgado ble rettet da han først
    kom opp med design and style som er nå kjent som Substantial Likevel Little motor.

    My homepage – http://tinyurl.com/m6roa5s

  18. For most recent news you have to pay a quick visit world
    wide web and on web I found this web site as a finest web page for
    newest updates.

  19. I get pleasure from, cause I discovered exactly what I was looking for.
    You’ve ended my 4 day lengthy hunt! God Bless you man. Have a nice day.

    My page レディーススキーウェア

  20. Hi to all, for the reason that I am actually keen of reading this webpage’s post to be updated daily.
    It includes nice stuff. If you have a chance, please visit
    back : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jcPISdrvw4Y

  21. Marvelous, what a blog it is! This web site presents helpful facts to us,
    keep it up.

  22. Everyone loves what you guys are up too. Such clever work and coverage!
    Keep up the wonderful works guys I’ve incorporated you guys to my own blogroll.

  23. I think the admin of this website is actually working hard in support
    of his web site, for the reason that here every information is quality based stuff.

  24. What’s up, always i used to check weblog posts here in the early hours in the dawn, because i
    enjoy to find out more and more.

  25. Hi there friends, its great post regarding educationand completely defined, keep it up all the time.

  26. Terimakasih Informasinya. Kami juga memiliki informasi kesehatan dan bisnis yg mungkin berguna bagi Anda di http://www.4lifesukses.com

  27. It’s a shame you don’t have a donate button! I’d most certainly donate
    to this outstanding blog! I guess for now i’ll
    settle for bookmarking and adding your RSS feed to my Google account.
    I look forward to fresh updates and will talk about this blog with my Facebook group.
    Chat soon!

    • Nice to be visiting your blog once more, it has been months for me. Well this article that ive been waited for therefore long. i want this article to finish my assignment within the faculty, and it has same topic together with your article. Thanks, nice share.

  28. I always spent my half an hour to read this tarot webpage’s
    articles all the time along with a cup of coffee.

  29. It’s wonderful that you are getting thoughts from this piece
    of writing as well as from our dialogue made here.

  30. I am in fact thankful to the owner of this site who has shared thios impressive paragraph at at thiss time.

  31. Totally free Porn Videos and Grownup Films for the viewing enjoyment.
    Guys are used to giving compliments to beautiful ladies, we seem default programmed to
    always do that, I mean to always start by telling them how pretty they look and all those often used lines.
    The adults who are solitary discover launch by watching these Videos.

  32. These arre AdWords adverts that an orgznization paid for therefore tht folks will notice their enterprise every time they’re looking Google.

    Alsoo visit my page advertise for free on google uk

  33. The reason is that without the former, the latter can never happen, and without
    the later, all that happened was someone read your message and moved on. The
    new “measures” improved control of the recycling chain, so that
    law enforcement officers in the monitoring process according to
    the law so that electronic waste can be recycled back to the
    formal dismantling business. Losing a girl who has been a huge
    part of your life for years is an extremely difficult thing.

  34. Right here is the right site for everyone who would like to
    find out about this topic. You know a whole lot its almost tough to argue with you (not that
    I actually would want to…HaHa). You certainly put
    a fresh spin on a subject which has been written about for ages.
    Great stuff, just excellent!

  35. Spot on with this write-up, I actually believe that this website
    needs far more attention. I’ll probably be returning
    to read through more, thanks for the information!

  36. For most up-to-date news you have to pay a quick visit web and on internet I found this web
    site as a finest site for newest updates.

  37. Excellent post. I was checking continuously this blog and I am
    impressed! Very useful information particularly the last part :) I care for such info a lot.
    I was seeking this certain info for a long time. Thank you and best of

  38. Electricians set up (dangle), point and form the beam (focus),
    and connect with power (circuit) lighting instruments.

    ehow, Lineman apprentice packages near You should have at least 1,000 hours
    per 12 months of experience for no less than 5 years in electrical development work., The median annual wage for electrical
    and electronics installers and repairers was $fifty one,220 in May 2012.

  39. Nice post. I was checking continuously this blog and I
    am impressed! Very helpful info specifically the last phase
    :) I deal with such information a lot. I was looking for this particular information for a very lengthy time.
    Thanks and good luck.

  40. Hi mates, its great paragraph on the topic of cultureand fully defined, keep it
    up all the time.

  41. We forecast tha will AR/VR could hit $150 billion revenue by 2020, with AR
    taking lion’s share around $120 million and VR at $30 billion.

  42. Our Sales Project Consultants (SPC) provide free in-home estimates to buyers at the customer’s obtain.

  43. Leave your ideas in the remarks underneath!

    • I was working and suddenly I visits your site frequently and recommended it to me to read also. The writing style is superior and the content is relevant.

  44. Whhen I initially left a comment I appear
    too have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now whenever a comment is added I receive
    four emails with the same comment. Perhaps there is a
    way you are ablee to remove me from that service?

    Appreciate it!

  45. I create a leave a response each time I appreciate a article on a website or if I have something to valuable to contribute to the discussion.
    It is triggered by the passion displayed in the article I browsed.
    And on this article Washington Declaration on
    Intellectual Property and the Public Interest

  46. Chicken is usually a wonderful choice at the same time.

  47. It’s actually a great and useful piece of info.
    I’m satisfied that you simply shared this helpful information wifh us.
    Please keep us up to date like this. Thanks for sharing.

    Feel ffree to visit my page Bang my Wife

  48. Hello it’s me, I am also visiting this site daily, this web page is really pleasant
    and the viewers are truly sharing pleasant thoughts.

  49. Definitely consider that that you stated. Your favourite justification seemed to be on the
    internet the easiest thing to take into account of.

    I say to you, I certainly get annoyed while people think
    about issues that they just do not recognise about.

    You managed to hit the nail upon the top and also defined out the entire thing with no need side-effects
    , folks could take a signal. Will likely be again to get more.
    Thank you

  50. Whats up very cool web site!! Man .. Excellent .. Amazing ..
    I’ll bookmark your web site and take the feeds additionally?
    I’m glad to find numerous helpful information right here in the put up, we want
    develop extra strategies in this regard, thank you for sharing.
    . . . . .

  51. Hello, this weekend is nice in support of me, since this time
    i am reading this great educational paragraph here at my house.

  52. There are many folks that hold a passcode to unlock
    the smartphone, but, their PIN or password is just simply equal to nothing.

  53. Hello, the whole thing is going nicely here and ofcourse every one iss sharing data, that’s really good, keep up

  54. Asking questions are really good thing if you are not understanding anything fully,
    however this article presents good understanding yet.

  55. What’s up, yeah this paragraph is truly pleasant and I
    have learned lot of things from it regarding blogging. thanks.

  56. I think everything said was very reasonable. However, think about this,
    suppose you added a little information? I mean, I don’t wish to tell you how to run your website, but what if you added something
    that grabbed people’s attention? I mean Washington Declaration on Intellectual
    Property and the Public Interest infojustice is a little plain. You should look at Yahoo’s home page and watch how they write post titles
    to get viewers to open the links. You might add a video or a related pic or two to grab people interested about
    what you’ve got to say. Just my opinion, it could bring your blog
    a little livelier.

  57. Factors that determine job openings can include local, regional and nationwide financial circumstances,
    especially dwelling building exercise. ehow, Lineman apprentice programs close
    to la, Mountwest Neighborhood and Technical College
    is main a consortium of 4 W.V. group faculties to develop the Heroes for Hire:
    Putting Expertise to Work program.

  58. Magnificent web site. Plenty of helpful info here. I’m sending it to some
    friends ans additionally sharing in delicious. And naturally, thanks for your sweat!

  59. Everyone loves what you guys are up too. This sort of clever work and reporting!
    Keep up the awesome works guys I’ve incorporated you guys to my own blogroll.

  60. I was more than happy to discover this web site.
    I need to to thank you for ones time for this particularly
    fantastic read!! I definitely liked every bit of it and i also have
    you saved as a favorite to look at new information in your

  61. Hey there! I’ve been following your web site for a long time
    now and finally got the bravery to go ahead and give you a shout out from Austin Tx!
    Just wanted to mention keep up the great work!

  62. I have been exploring for a bit for any high quality articles or blog posts in this sort of house .

    Exploring in Yahoo I eventually stumbled upon this website.
    Studying this info So i am satisfied to exhibit that I have a very excellent uncanny feeling I
    found out just what I needed. I so much definitely will make sure to don?t fail to remember this website
    and give it a look regularly.

  63. I’ll right away clutch your rss feed as I can’t find your
    email subscription hyperlink or newsletter service. Do you
    have any? Please allow me know in order that I may just subscribe.

  64. I’m gone to inform my little brother, that he should also
    pay a visit this website on regular basis to obtain updated from latest information.

  65. I like the helpful info you provide in your articles.
    I’ll bookmark your weblog and check again here regularly.
    I’m quite sure I will learn many new stuff right here!
    Good luck for the next!

  66. Useful information. Fortunate me I discovered your site unintentionally, and I am stunned why
    this twist of fate did not happened in advance!
    I bookmarked it.

  67. Hurrah! At last I got a blog from where I be capable of truly obtain useful facts regarding
    my study and knowledge.

  68. This article presents clear idea designed for the new users of blogging, that actually how to do blogging and site-building.

  69. It’s really a great and helpful piece of info. I am glad that you shared this
    useful info with us. Please stay us up to date like this.
    Thanks for sharing.

  70. Thanks for finally writing about > Washington Declaration on Intellectual Property and the Public Interest
    infojustice < Liked it!

  71. Most one a day multivitamins will not contain 100% of these minerals
    and that is ok. The minerals are too large to fit them all in one pill.

  72. Le spectaculaire et sportif qui faire du sport dans le gymnase ont une influence sur eux.
    Les etudiants reduire leurs angoisses et accru leur appetit sexuel et la confiance.
    le qui convoite le style Rolex, mais ne peut pas
    se le permettre.

  73. I love what you guys are up too. This sort of clever work and exposure!
    Keep up the very good works guys I’ve incorporated you guys to blogroll.:


  74. Vinyl replacement windows are alsdo very cost effective in that they
    form a very goo barrier between the outside atmosphere and the
    inside one making your need for air conditioning much less.
    A new door can exponentially increase your curb appeal and freshen up
    the look off your home. Ducts are used to
    distribute conditioned air throughout a home.

  75. The first generation Heavy Duty Trucks offer you three options for Standard, Super
    Cab and the Crew Cab. It is the desire that is within you that is worth everything
    — it is life itself. This scan typically presents 20-60 stocks per
    day in good market conditions, and I can often find stocks forming possible bases using this
    scan that I then put in my Long Watchlist.

  76. I’m no longer certain the place you are getting your information, but
    good topic. I must spend some time finding out more or understanding more.

    Thank you for fantastic info I was looking for this information for
    my mission.

  77. We are planning to move to Brisbane at the end of this year. We have 3 boys age 7month, 5 years and 7 years. Need a good area to rent for the first six months and then buy a place thereafter. Need a 3 to 4 bedroom house with space. Budget of $450 000. Both hubby and i do not have jobs as yet so do not want to eat to much into our savings when we get there. Areas with good primary and high schools?

    Can you please suggest areas to rent and buy?


  78. this is a nice article about beanie price guide

  79. Hi there to every body, it’s my first pay a quick visit of this website; this web site includes awesome and in fact good material for visitors.

  80. I don’t even understand how I stopped up here, but I thought this publish was great.
    I don’t recognize who you’re but definitely you are going
    to a well-known blogger when you are not already.


  81. Excellent pieces. Keep posting such kind of info
    on your blog. Im really impressed by it.
    Hello there, You have performed a fantastic job. I’ll definitely digg it
    and personally recommend to my friends. I am sure they will be benefited from this web site.

  82. I go to see every day some web sites and blogs
    to read posts, except this web site gives feature based writing.

  83. If you still haven’t gotten around to playing The Witcher, this is definitely the best opportunity,
    with a cheap price tag and some excellent added content.
    If you need a place to download games for pc, search for a website that provides a good variety of games.
    Buying new video games in shops now costs and bunch of

  84. My spouse and I stumbled over here different page and thought I might check things out.
    I like what I see so i am just following you. Look forward
    to going over your web page yet again.

  85. The standard cab is available for 2 – 3 passengers and with 2 doors, Super can offers 2 smaller doors and can accodomate
    5 – 6 people and the last Crew Cab offers accodomation for 5 – 6 people and has full sized four doors.
    The creators of Bali Mojo boast that this product can boost sexual performance
    for up to four days. This stops the fat being absorbed into your bloodstream and stored in the

  86. I present do purchase fruits and vegetables online
    fairly typically from providers like InstaCart and GoodEggs within the San Francisco
    Bay Area.

  87. Hey there I am so happy I found your webpage, I really found you by accident, while I was
    browsing on Yahoo for something else, Nonetheless I am here
    now and would just like to say kudos for a marvelous post and a all
    round interesting blog (I also love the theme/design),
    I don’t have time to read through it all at the minute but I have
    book-marked it and also added your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read much more, Please do keep up the fantastic jo.

    My page nh web design, http://www.facebook.com,

  88. ) If you are looking for computer game cheats for the
    Sony Play – Station, Play – Station Two, or Sony Play – Station Three, PLEASE
    READ FURTHER. Funny how these simple activities can provide so much fun. t
    want to miss daiy entertainment wherever they

  89. Over time, creosote layers can grow to be denser and denser,
    making it harder for even a professional chimney sweep to remove
    it with standard equipment.

  90. Very good article. I definitely appreciate this website.
    Keep it up!

  91. Let’s transpose that experience to an online experience.
    However other individuals may be suited to getting surveys, and after all over again you will find legitimate solutions to get paid further dollars and goods
    by filling in surveys. Unfortunately, for some people it will be easier to speak your audiences language than others.

  92. Technological devices, such as computers, i –
    Pods, i – Pads and SMART Boards are wonderful tools that complement music lessons.
    So, I am assuming that you are looking for an honest Tate music
    group review, right. A high frequency of notes can suggest
    a degree of contained excitement within that relaxed state.

  93. Wow! At last I got a weblog from where I be able to truly take useful facts regarding my study and knowledge.

  94. aide les autres comme vous a aidé aidé moi.

  95. This site truly has all the information I needed concerning this subject
    and didn’t know who to ask.

  96. Hi to every body, it’s my first pay a visit of this web site;
    this web site carries remarkable and really good stuff in favor
    of readers.

  97. I’ll immediately take hold of your rss as I can not in finding
    your e-mail subscription hyperlink or newsletter service.
    Do you’ve any? Please permit me know so that I may just subscribe.

  98. Gracias Mil, ahora que os he conocido no se como vivir sin vosotros

  99. When some one searches for his vital thing, so he/she desires to
    be available that in detail, thus that thing is maintained
    over here.

  100. What’s up to every one, the contents present at this web site
    are truly amazing for people knowledge, well, keep up the good work fellows.

  101. La plancha gaz chauffe aussi plus rapidement ainsi d’attendre longtemps pour organizations to a vos

  102. Ликвидация ООО (ликвидация предприятия) Почему у собственников бизнеса возникает необходимость в закрытии фирмы? Причины бывают разные. Так, предприниматель находит иной способ получения дохода, или же просто не выдерживает конкуренции на рынке. Рост кредиторской задолженности перед контрагентами и государственными фондами тоже может стать причиной ликвидации предприятия. Зачастую поводом к закрытию юридического лица становится текущая экономическая ситуация в стране, Любой экономический кризис вынуждает предпринимателей максимально оптимизировать свои затраты. Некоторые, приняв эффективные меры, выживают, однако многие вынуждены ликвидировать ООО.

  103. The following is the perfect posting i actually found as a consequence of promote them. It’s really just what exactly needed to check out anticipation around run you are going to continue on to get spreading this sort of great posting.

  104. It’s pretty worth enough for me. In my opinion, if all webmasters and bloggers made good content as you did, the web will be a lot more useful than ever before… Well, that certainly is a post.
    I will defer to the community at large on whether to name it the Best Post of the Millenium

  105. if all webmasters and bloggers made good content as you did, the web will be a lot more useful than ever before… It’s pretty worth enough for me. In my opinion,
    Well, that certainly is a post.

  106. Thanks for sharing the info, keep up the good work going…. I really enjoyed exploring your site. good resource..

  107. if all webmasters and bloggers made good content as you did, the web will be a lot more useful than ever before… It’s pretty worth enough for me. In my opinion,

  108. i read a lot of stuff and i found that the way of writing to clearifing that exactly want to say was very good so i am impressed and ilike to come again in future..

  109. well , this is wonderfull article

  110. I like the post format as you create user engagement in the complete article. It seems round up of all published posts. Thanks for gauging the informative posts.

  111. true it was indeed

  112. I create a leave a response each time I appreciate a article on a website or if I have something to valuable to contribute to the discussion.

  113. The following is the perfect posting i actually found as a consequence of promote them.

  114. We’ve certainly not after go through a chunk that will details precisely what I truly do together with your the latest web site really does. Thanks a lot to the honor!

  115. helo sir

  116. Hi sir i just want to know some informative things on this topic.

  117. This is a truly good site post. Not too many people would actually, the way you just did. I am really impressed that there is so much information about this subject that have been uncovered and you’ve done your best, with so much class. If wanted to know more about green smoke reviews, than by all means come in and check our stuff.

  118. You know your projects stand out of the herd. There is something special about them. It seems to me all of them are really brilliant!

  119. I have actually said this. But, in my defense, it was after years of having this said to me and I was honestly just trying to protect/warn a new employee from getting his heart crushed like I did. Halstedhus

  120. The specific focus will probably be with conversation, liberty, expressing and as well conviviality. Finished . prices at restaurant

  121. Nice blog and absolutely outstanding. You can do something much better but i still say this perfect.Keep trying for the best.

  122. Attractive part of content. I simply stumbled upon your weblog and in accession capital to claim that I get actually loved account your blog posts. Any way I’ll be subscribing on your augment or even I achievement you access constantly rapidly.

  123. You have a good point here!I totally agree with what you have said!!Thanks for sharing your views…hope more people will read this article!!!

  124. thanks for sharing the information keep updating, looking forward for more posts.

  125. I just like the valuable info you provide for your articles.I’ll bookmark your weblog and take a look at once more right here regularly. I am reasonably certain I’ll learn a lot of new stuff proper here.

  126. I hope everyone like this information they shared as I do. Really great information.

  127. Hi! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a team of volunteers and new initiatives in the same niche. Blog gave us useful information to work. You have done an amazing job!

  128. Nice article. Everything here is phenomenal to read. This is just the reason why I always like to read your stuff. You are one of the greatest writers of this era. I hope you’ll keep this top notch stuff going on.

  129. I haven’t any word to appreciate this post…..Really i am impressed from this post….the person who create this post it was a great human..thanks for shared this with us.

  130. I have bookmarked your website because this site contains valuable information in it. I am really happy with articles quality and presentation. Thanks a lot for keeping great stuff. I am very much thankful for this site. Search engine optimization SLC

  131. Nice to be visiting your blog once more, it has been months for me. Well this article that ive been waited for therefore long. i want this article to finish my assignment within the faculty, and it has same topic together with your article. Thanks, nice share. personal injury lawyer kennesaw ga

  132. I have come across and believe me I have been searching out for this similar kind of post for past a week and hardly came across this. Thank you very much and will look for more postings from you personal injury lawyer canton ga

  133. I have been searching out for this similar kind of post for past a week and hardly came across this. Thank you very much and will look for more postings from you Smoothies for Diabetics

  134. This web journal is so pleasant to me. I will continue coming here over and over. Visit my connection too .. how to lose 20 pounds fast in 2 weeks

  135. I enjoyed over read your blog post. Your blog have nice information, I got good ideas from this amazing blog. I am always searching like this type blog post. I hope I will see again.. how to lose 20 pounds fast in 2 weeks

  136. Writing with style and getting good compliments on the article is quite hard, to be honest.But you’ve done it so calmly and with so cool feeling and you’ve nailed the job. ISN Contractor

  137. On the off chance That conceivable, for example, pick up learning, would you psyche overhauling your web journal with Data Extra? It is extremely helpful for me click here

  138. I would like a new smartphone that will in a position to manufacture a hundred or so speak to one time. It is because I’ve got a great deal of contacts. Cerrajeria Vigo

  139. Have a quick read of the below tips to get the most from your membership experience. Inagamo Abogados Murcia

  140. I just like the valuable info you provide for your articles.I’ll bookmark your weblog and take a look at once more right here regularly. birthday balloons next day delivery

  141. There are hundreds, maybe thousands, of people who review books for publication in magazines and newspapers, many more who review books on the Web. If you add in those who review magazines, newspapers, movies, theater, blogs, websites, Face book styles, Twitter tweets, what have you, buy book report

  142. Everyone in France is not accredited to offer a loan and credit to individuals remains a supervised activity. If an individual or group promotes online financial services, the website is obliged to publish its legal information and general conditions.  Stop aux escroqueries sur internet

  143. The post is composed in extremely a decent way and it contains numerous helpful data for me. Bringing pets to Sri Lanka

  144. I like to think I’m much funnier than Dave but don’t ever tell him that because I’ve asked him for a job a couple of times and even though he’s taken out a restraining order on me tyrolertøj

  145. Awesome and interesting article. Great things you’ve always shared with us. Thanks.Just continue composing such informative posts. hampton bay

  146. I have perused this post and on the off chance that I might I be able to wish to recommend you few fascinating things or counsel. Maybe you could compose next articles alluding to this article. fodbold efterskole

  147. I have perused this post and on the off chance that I might I be able to wish to recommend you few fascinating things or counsel. Maybe you could compose next articles alluding to this article. flying flowers promo code

  148. I as of late ran over your website and have been perusing along. I thought I would leave my first remark. I don”t realize what to say aside from that I have delighted in perusing. tesco flower delivery

  149. It offers you elegant and practical antique mirrored sideboard that features hardwood frame, granite top and bevelved mirror veneers. It has 3 drawers, 2 doors and 2 shelves with golden finish on frame. This one-off furniture piece is perfect for your dining and living room. home interiors

  150. I definitely enjoying every little bit of it. It is a great website and nice share. I want to thank you. Good job! You guys do a great blog, and have some great contents. Keep up the good work. copywriting

  151. You completed a few fine points there. I did a search on the subject and found nearly all persons will go along with with your blog. come venire bene nelle foto

  152. I just like the valuable info you provide for your articles.I’ll bookmark your weblog and take a look at once more right here regularly. I am reasonably certain I’ll learn a lot of new stuff proper here next day delivery flowers

  153. I’ll bookmark your weblog and take a look at once more right here regularly. I am reasonably certain I’ll learn a lot of new stuff proper here next day delivery flowers

  154. Somebody Sometimes with visits your online journal routinely and prescribed it as far as I can tell to peruse also. The method for composing is brilliant furthermore the substance is first rate. A debt of gratitude is in order for that knowledge you give the perusers! bangkok to pattaya

  155. I would like a new smartphone that will in a position to manufacture a hundred or so speak to one time. It is because I’ve got a great deal of contacts. halloween kostumer

  156. just like the valuable info you provide for your articles.I’ll bookmark your weblog and take a look at once more right here regularly. I am reasonably certain I’ll learn a lot of new stuff proper here fifa 17 hack

  157. I would like a new smartphone that will in a position to manufacture a hundred or so speak to one time. It is because I’ve got a great deal of contacts. clean master

  158. Head on around to our estimating site to collect your first advertising effort. auto liker We are one in everything about number of associations that guarantee our system which will deliver durable, auto liker fruitful results in your fan site page. weight loss pills

  159. Great site! I genuinely adore how it is simple on my eyes it is. I am considering how I may be informed at whatever point another post has been made. I have subscribed to your RSS which may do the trap? Have an extraordinary day bird watching binoculars

  160. Thanks for providing recent updates regarding the concern, I look forward to read more wing chun books

  161. I like the following point very much, Give your speaker feedback. Try nodding occasionally and smiling. Be sure that you are situated in an inviting position.

  162. It’s truly just what exactly required to look at expectation around lengthy run you are going to keep on on to get increasing this kind of fine posting pregnancy miracle

  163. I’m keen your website. Marvelous piece of writing. It’s very good quality, each gender should certainly figure out how to know earlier than they will often know. toskana villen

  164. Thanks for a wonderful share. Your article has importations your hard work and experience you have got in This field. Brilliant reading .I love it. noto sizilien

  165. You have done a pretty good job today. The information was fantastic to read. I am very impressed with this work from you. Thanks for doing this. Keep up the great work best vitamin c face serum

  166. You have done a pretty good job today. The information was fantastic to read. I am very impressed with this work from you. Thanks for doing this. Keep up the great work singer sewing machine reviews

  167. Awesome and interesting article. Great things you’ve always shared with us. Thanks.Just continue composing such informative posts.
    arran food

  168. Excellent .. Amazing .. I’ll bookmark your blog and take the feeds also…I’m happy to find so many useful info here in the post. we need work out more techniques in this regard. thanks for sharing. mxf converter

  169. The most sensual girls of Hyderabad are work as part-time escorts at our Nampally Escort Service Agency. Only High Class North & South Indian Model Girls. Lexmark HP Kyocera new and refurbished machines

  170. thanks, I have long been looking for this article

 Leave a Reply

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>